Research Publications

CAPA Research Publications are long-form in-depth analysis of a feature of the aviation industry, presented in PDF format.

CAPA-Envest Global Airline Sustainability Benchmarking & Rating Report 2023

We're excited to announce that the third edition of the CAPA-Envest Global Airline Sustainability Benchmarking & Rating Report is now available.

In Oct-2021, CAPA – Centre for Aviation (CAPA), in partnership with Envest Global, published its initial Airline Sustainability Benchmarking Report, that report being the first step in providing insights into the status of airline decarbonisation and designed to assist decision-making by a broad range of stakeholders.

This, the third edition of the CAPA-Envest Global Airline Sustainability Benchmarking & Rating Report, continues these key themes. It provides detailed analysis into a “post-COVID-19” operating environment for the aviation sector and, importantly, insights into the aviation industry's pathway to Net Zero.

Benefits of the Report:

  • Provides a transparent, data-driven assessment of airline sustainability.
  • Establishes an independent, standardised rating system based on emissions for airlines.
  • Allows airlines to compare and contrast their sustainability results with industry counterparts.
  • Assists corporate travel buyers in identifying the most carbon-efficient airlines.
  • Supports Travel Management Companies (TMCs) in understanding airline emissions and helping clients achieve internal targets.
  • Informs investors and financiers about the relative sustainability ratings of airlines.
  • Fosters a competitive market where environmental responsibility is key.
  • Allows investors to understand airlines' green efforts, aligning with the industry's shift towards net-zero operations.

BONUS appendix – Data summaries for over 80 airlines now included!


  • Rating Framework
  • Disclosure
  • Total CO2 Emissions
  • Emission Intensity
  • SAF Use
  • Offsets Purchased
  • Factors Affecting Emission Intensity
  • Financial Indicators of Sustainability Risk or Resilience
  • Airline Sustainability Rating

CAPA Members, CAPA Summit attendees and CTC Corporate Buyer Members receive exclusive discounts, Contact us or reach out to your dedicated CAPA Account Manager for your code. 

Buy for USD 995
Aviation Global Growth Prospects 2024

Global travel returns to normal, but growth is increasingly at the mercy of aircraft makers.

Global airline seat capacity finished 2023 at 99% of 2019 levels. 

Given that barely 18 months ago in 2022 global seat capacity was at a mere 50% of historic levels, this return to near normality is a remarkable achievement. 

Some variability in the level of recovery and regional volatility still exists. Asia Pacific international travel is the major outlier, finishing 2023 at around 85% of 2019 levels. However, most airlines have passed out of the survival and rebuilding phases.

Brochure - CAPA Envest Global Airline Sustainability Benchmarking and Rating Report 2023

Download this exclusive brochure for a sneak peek into the CAPA Envest Global Airline Sustainability Benchmarking and Rating Report 2023.

Priced at USD 995, the report is aviation‘s essential guide to airline environmental performance. It is the first and only rating system, based on the comprehensive, objective and consistent performance data of over 100 major airlines.

The shape of the aviation industry - CAPA’s 2023 Megatrends and World Summit Agenda

The world’s biggest aviation markets are clearly awakening from their COVID-19 slumber – China’s borders have reopened and India is particularly in the spotlight following the large new aircraft orders at the Paris Air Show.

However, behind this strong performance and declarations of numerous airlines that demand remains quite strong, one glaring question remains – when will this thirst for travel born from the pandemic be quenched?

Top 10 Asia Pacific Airports - 1H2023 insights and regional recovery prospects

The past few years have not been kind to large airports in Asia Pacific.

With regional lockdowns, a morass of COVID-19 travel requirements and stubbornly closed international borders, the recovery in the region has trailed behind the rest of the world.

However, as lockdowns have ended and borders reopened passenger traffic in the region has started to return to more ‘normal’ volumes. In 1H2023 there has been the situation of airports enjoying a steep rebound in traffic, with travellers eager to return to destinations that have been cut off to them in the past few years, or to explore new destinations.

Top 10 North American Airports - 2022 insights and recovery prospects for 2023

Traffic at North America’s 10 largest airports came roaring back in 2022. With the domestic market returning to near normality and international travel building through the year, an additional 191 million passengers passed through the main hubs during the year.

In total, the airports handled a combined 627 million passengers, which was an increase of 30.5% year-on-year. Total throughput was down just 6.7% on 2019 levels, with domestic traffic down only 3.3%. International traffic was down 24%, although the relative recovery accelerated from early 2Q2022.

Three of the top 10 North American airports have already exceeded pre-pandemic passenger levels, and all bar a few of the largest US hubs anticipate full traffic recovery during 2023. Those airports not expecting a full recovery in 2023 have significant exposure to slower recovering intercontinental traffic, particularly the Asia Pacific region. Even in the Asia Pacific, most travel markets are predicted to be back at full strength by early 2024.

The world's biggest private equity firms and their investments into airports

Previous CAPA – Centre for Aviation special reports have identified the impact that Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWF) and Pension Funds have made on the airport sector by way of their investments. There are other alternative financing techniques, and private equity is one of them.

This report examines who the main actors in private equity are.

They include some firms that have a disproportionate influence into the psychology of boardroom behaviour in some of the world’s leading companies. Also, some which are likely to be at the very forefront of the rebuilding of Ukraine, including its air transport system.

More mundanely, although a high number of the leading private equity firms have demonstrated an interest in the airport sector at times – including some notably off-the-wall instances where there was no obvious rationale for that interest – they have, by and large, been more reluctant to invest than have SWFs and Pension Funds.

CAPA Aircraft Interiors - State of the Industry 2023

As the aviation industry emerges from three years of pandemic-induced turmoil and hiatus, the aircraft interiors sector has once again become lively, with major developments taking shape across seat manufacturing, inflight connectivity (IFC), and inflight entertainment (IFE).

With the CAPA Aircraft Interiors Database, this report will analyse recent industry trends with data, visualising areas that have shown tremendous growth while providing clarity on how leading suppliers in each sector have shrunk and grown.

In this report, we will explore the following:

Seat manufacturing
• Largest suppliers
• Collins’ Dominance among the US Big Three
• Beyond the US: Expansion of Recaro and Geven
• Spotlight China: Rise of ‘Made in China’ AVIC seats
• The Pursuit of the Lightweight Seat
• The Ever-narrowing Seat Pitch
• Increased Focus on Premium seats
• Latest New Cabin Trend: Business Plus

Inflight connectivity (IFC)
• LEO Connectivity
• Globalisation of Connected Regional Jets

Inflight entertainment (IFE)
• Embedded IFE
• Narrowbody IFE: The Return of Seatback Screens?
• Wireless IFE

To get a snapshot of the data and insights shown in this report, download the shortened complimentary very below.

Buy for USD 1,200
CAPA Aircraft Interiors - State of the Industry 2023 Snapshot

Get a taste of CAPA's new Aircraft Interiors - State of the Industry 2023 Report.

In this version we explore examples of the data and insights shown in the in-depth report above.

Learn more about the aircraft interiors sector which has once again become lively, with major developments taking shape across seat manufacturing, inflight connectivity (IFC), and inflight entertainment (IFE). 

CAPA Explains - Money Flows in the Aviation Industry

Intended Audiences: The audiences that will benefit from the CAPA Explains series include –

  • Airlines;
  • Travel technology companies, such as GDS, NDC providers and new aggregators, online booking tool providers in corporate travel (OBTs);
  • Travel intermediaries – agents, OTAs, TMCs, wholesalers and tour operators;
  • Other travel category vendors;
  • Corporate customers – travel managers, buyers, procurement and ESG stakeholders;
  • Travellers.

Benefits of Purchasing

  • Gain access and knowledge to all areas of change affecting each topic/edition:
    • Consolidate your learning in one place, at your fingertips and without the need for self-directed research;
  • Save time and therefore money in researching important topics;
  • Gain insights that help you develop your strategy to benefit, or mitigate negative implications of the changes occurring in the travel distribution ecosystem;
  • Utilise CAPA’s extensive research, industry knowledge and externally sourced expertise related to the ever-changing travel distribution ecosystem;
  • Understand the changes in travel distribution in a simple, single, clear, and concise manner.

Introducing Edition 1 - Money Flows in the Aviation Industry (and the implications of change on all constituents in the ecosystem)

  • Explaining the dynamics of aviation money flows:
    • How have they worked in the past?
    • What has been changing?
      • When, the amounts and the impacts in the ecosystem.
    • What has happened in the last weeks and months?
    • Why have money flows changed?
    • Who is implicated and by what scale in the ecosystem?
      • Airlines (principals), GDS & travel technology vendors, intermediaries (agents / TMC’s etc), online booking tool providers in corporate travel (OBTs), customers and travellers
    • What might happen next?
    • Winners & losers in the changes.

This is a must read first edition which represents a single source to understand the money flows and how historic, recent and future changes are impacting EVERY part of the ecosystem.

Buy for USD 199