- Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan,
Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi,
Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Cote d'Ivoire,
Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France,
Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Guyana,
Haiti, Honduras, Hungary,
Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Ireland, Israel, Italy,
Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait,
Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia,
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar,
Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands,
New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niger, Norway,
Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal,
Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova,
Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda,
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic,
Tajikistan, Thailand, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan,
Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates,
United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States, Uruguay,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam,
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a UN Specialized Agency, is the global forum for civil aviation. ICAO works to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States.
The Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention), was signed on 07-Dec-1944 by 52 States. Pending ratification of the Convention by 26 States, the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) was established. ICAO came into being on 04-Apr-1947. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations linked to Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
The Preamble to the Convention on International Civil Aviation sets forth the purpose of ICAO:
- WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and
- WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that co-operation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;
- THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically.
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An audience of senior aviation professionals recently doubted the sector's ability to renew its licence to grow. At CAPA's Airlines in Transition (AIT) conference in Dublin on 11-Mar-2016, 88% of delegates polled believed that environmental pressures would constrain airline growth over the next 20 years. Although aviation is one of the only global sectors with ambitious emissions reduction targets, and a strategy to achieve them, its message is not being heard.
Aviation must communicate its importance to the global economy, so that governments and other stakeholders regard its growth as essential. Introducing the topic, Professor Geoffrey Lipman argued for a "moon-shot" to focus resources and attention on developing commercially viable biofuels, allowing a carbon-free future for aviation. This goes beyond the industry's current targets. He stressed the significance of climate change above almost any other global issue: "Climate is existential", he stated.
Following the 2015 Paris Agreement the world has stepped up all efforts to ensure its future existence. Aviation must play its part and also be seen to do so.
CAPA’s Iran Aviation Summit 2016, the first international aviation conference in Iran for nearly four decades, opened today. More than 400 delegates and attendees – airlines, airports, aircraft and engine manufacturers, GDS and technology providers and suppliers – listened to aviation leaders and decision makers talking about the future of Iran’s aviation market. For those of you that missed it, here are some of the key highlights from Day 1:
CAPA’s Iran Aviation Summit 2016, the first international aviation conference in Iran for nearly four decades, opened on 24-Jan-2016.
More than 400 delegates and attendees – airlines, airports, aircraft and engine manufacturers, lessors, GDS and technology providers and suppliers – listened to aviation leaders and decision makers talking about the future of Iran’s aviation market.
Some of the highlights from Day 1 were the announcement by Iran's Deputy Minister of new aircraft orders from Airbus and ATR, Iran Air's 10 year development plan, including making Tehran Airport a major transit hub, and Turkish Airlines' prediction of a doubling of tourism demand within two years.
This report contains extensive extracts from the Keynote Remarks of Jeff Shane, IATA General Counsel, to the Tort Trial & Insurance Practice Section of the American Bar Association Aviation and Space Law Committee National Program, in Washington, DC on 22-Oct-2015. Mr Shane addresses a key area of concern to those dedicated to applying lessons learned from airline accidents in the cause of improving air safety.
Major improvements in safety management have come with the advent of voluntary reporting systems, dating back to the 1970s. Mr Shane recounts that these systems have been encouraged by regulators in a number of countries as part of a non-punitive, “just culture” approach to safety regulation. There is an emerging consensus among regulators and airlines alike that a “just culture” approach yields greater benefits than a regime characterized by enforcement penalties. Essential to the success of such systems is that the information furnished through such systems be held in strict confidence.
However, Mr Shane was concerned at a persistent “prosecutorial imperative” - that judges, prosecutors, and trial lawyers often seek access to this material and, “in a growing number of cases, they have succeeded.” If this trend were to continue, says Mr Shane, “the essential flow of safety information would simply dry up” as those with valuable knowledge fear the legal consequences of sharing information.
The European Union has proposed to limit until 2020 its Emissions Trading System to that part of an intercontinental flight that operates within EU airspace, in an attempt to persuade the UN agency ICAO to reach a global solution to the carbon emissions problem. The next three-yearly ICAO assembly, starting in Montreal on 24-Sep-2013, is expected to include a resolution about the use of global market-based measures aimed at reducing aviation’s emissions.
IATA’s annual meeting in Jun-2013 backed a plan based on airlines offsetting their emissions after 2020 by purchasing so-called carbon permits (which allow the purchaser to emit carbon dioxide, CO2) from other sectors that manage to reduce pollution. IATA represents 240 airlines globally, but there remain significant hurdles to a global agreement since, ultimately, it is governments (through ICAO) that will have to agree any measures.
The framers of the EU’s Directive containing its Emissions Trading System (ETS) for aviation were well aware it would generate controversy. It has.
Almost every major nation has vociferously opposed it; even Russia, China and the US are for once wholeheartedly united in their opposition. China and India have banned their airlines from participating in the ETS and similar legislation has passed both houses in the USA. A 26 country “Coalition of the Unwilling” has formally agreed a series of retaliatory measures should EU states impose sanctions for non-compliance. The outcome could be bloody and very costly to airlines and economies alike, the last thing the industry needs at this time.
The real crunch comes when enforcement of the ETS is attempted. Individual EU member states must be the ones to fine and even, as directed by the Commission, suspend services by foreign airlines. This means each EU state and its airlines risks being picked off by retaliation from the offending country.
The first of a two part report, this article reviews the practical implications in implementing the EU's penalties for non-compliance with its controversial ETS rules. Part II will look at the ironies of the EU's focus on following the tabloid herd, while failing to get its own house in order.