Peru and the European Commission signed (14-Sep-2009) a Horizontal Aviation Agreement on 02-Sep-2009 to restore legal certainty for the bilateral air services agreements between Peru and EU Member States. The agreement removes nationality restrictions in the bilateral air services agreements between EU Member States and Peru, thus enabling any EU airline to operate flights between Peru and any EU Member State where it is established and where a bilateral agreement with Peru exists and traffic rights are available. The agreement, however, does not replace the nine bilateral agreements in place between the EU Member States and Peru. [more]
Peru and EU sign horizontal air services agreement
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"Too little competition in the American (airline) market". EU head: US consolidation goes too far
At the ACI 26th General Assembly in Athens on 21-Jun-2016 the European Commission's DG Competition Henrik Mørch said that the EC has generally approved JVs but is closely watching consolidation trends. As reported in a CAPA news brief, Mr Mørch said that the EC is interested in how much consolidation can be justified with efficiency gains for the consumer.
He added that, while the European aviation market is more fragmented than the American market, taking the level of consolidation that exists in the US and applying it to Europe is "not necessarily something we would advocate for...there's too little competition in the American market in our view".
However, the level of concentration on the North Atlantic, the principal market where JVs have been approved by the Commission, is greater than in North America – the market that Mr Mørch considers too concentrated. Meanwhile, European fragmentation weighs heavily on its airlines' yields and holds back their profitability.