The Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) is an independent statutory agency of the Australian Federal Government responsible for improving safety and public confidence in all modes of public transportation in Australia, including aviation, marine and rail. The bureau is governed by a commission and is entirely separate from transport regulators, policy makers and service providers.
ANAC (Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil) is the Brazilian agency responsible for the regulation and the safety oversight of civil aviation. Established in Mar-2006, ANAC incorporated the staff, the structure and the functions of the Air Force’s Civil Aviation Department (DAC), the former civil aviation authority. Constituted as a special autarchy with status of regulatory agency, ANAC has a five member board (five directors, one of them being the president), all of them nominated by the President of Brazil and approved by the Senate, with a mandate of up to 5 years. Each director is in charge of one or more areas, as indicated:
The agency is subordinated to the President of Brazil, and is linked, operationally and budgetarily, to the Ministry of Defense. ANAC’s headquarters is in Brasília, and there are also seven regional offices in the country: Belém, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Brasília and Manaus.
Directly under the State Council, the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (CAAC) is a ministry-level organ, which is responsible for the national civil aviation affairs. CAAC's mission is to "enforce the unified supervision and regulation on the civil aviation activities of the whole country, and in accordance with laws and State Council's decisions, to issue regulations and decisions concerning civil aviation activities within its jurisdiction".
Under the CAAC, there are seven regional administrations responsible for the administration and supervision on the civil aviation affairs within their respective regions. They are: CAAC Northern Regional Administration, CAAC Northeast Regional Administration, CAAC Eastern Regional Administration, CAAC Central South Regional Administration, CAAC Southwest Regional Administration, CAAC Northwest Regional Administration, and Urumqi Regional Administration of CAAC. The regional administrations are department-level organs.
The CAAC regional administrations have 26 CAAC Safety Supervision Offices (SSMO), which represent the regional administrations and are in charge of safety supervision and market regulation of civil aviation enterprises like airlines and airports within their respective regions. The 26 CAAC SSMOs are located in Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Dalian, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Shandong, Xiamen, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Hainan, Guangxi, Shenzhen, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai.
India's Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the country's civil aviation regulator. Its vision is to “endeavour to promote safe and efficient Air Transportation through regulation and proactive safety oversight system.
Its roles are, among other things, the registration of civil aircraft, formulation of standards of airworthiness for civil aircraft registered in India and granting of certificates of airworthiness, licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance engineers, flight engineers and air traffic controllers, certification of aerodromes and CNS/ATM facilities, granting of Air Operator’s Certificates to Indian carriers and regulation of air transport services operating to/from/within/over India by Indian and foreign operators, including clearance of scheduled and non-scheduled flights of such operators, conducting investigation into accidents/incidents and more.
Dubai Civil Aviation Authority is an autonomous agency of the Dubai Government, established in 2007 to undertake development of the emirate's civil aviation industry and to oversee all aviation-related activities. DCAA's primary acitivities include:
- Creating and implementing aviation policy;
- Negotiating and signing of air service agreements;
- Monitoring air crew, for compliance with rules and regulations, for air navigation;
- Inspecting aircraft and conducting safety audits and document checking.
The European Aviation Safety Agency is the centrepiece of the European Union’s strategy for aviation safety. Its mission is to promote the highest common standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation.
The European Union is a political and economic union comprising 27 states located primarily in Europe. The EU collectively represents the world's largest economy, with a GDP of USD15 trillion (2009), and counts some 500 million people within its borders. The EU operates as a single market, with a common system of laws and trade policies, with 16 states have forming a monetary union, adopting a common currency - the euro. The single market is based on the four freedoms of the EU: the free movement of labour, capital, goods and services. 22 member states have agreed to abolish passport controls between them, under an agreement known as the Schengen Agreement. Major institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the European Council, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and the European Central Bank.
The European Union was established in the aftermath of World War Two to bring peace, stability and prosperity to Europe. Key developments in its history include:
- 1951: The European Coal and Steel Community is established by the six founding members
- 1957: The Treaty of Rome establishes a common market
- 1973: The Community expands to nine member states and develops its common policies
- 1979: The first direct elections to the European Parliament
- 1981: The first Mediterranean enlargement
- 1993: Completion of the single market
- 1993: The Treaty of Maastricht establishes the European Union
- 1995: The EU expands to 15 members
- 2002: Euro notes and coins are introduced
- 2004: Ten more countries join the Union
European Commission Vice-President, Siim Kallas, is responsible for Transport.
Hong Kong Civil Aviation Department (CAD) is the government agency that regulates civil aviation activities in Hong Kong. It also provides air navigation and air traffic control services for all aircraft operating to/from the Hong Kong Information Region. The Department is responsible for seven divisions.
- Airport Standards;
- Air Traffic Management;
- Air Services;
- Flight Standards and Airworthiness;
- Air Traffic Engineering and Standards;
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a UN Specialized Agency, is the global forum for civil aviation. ICAO works to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States.
The Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention), was signed on 07-Dec-1944 by 52 States. Pending ratification of the Convention by 26 States, the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) was established. ICAO came into being on 04-Apr-1947. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations linked to Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
The Preamble to the Convention on International Civil Aviation sets forth the purpose of ICAO:
- WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and
- WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that co-operation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;
- THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organisation of 187 countries, which aims to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. It is a specialised agency of the United Nations but has its own charter, governing structure, and finances.
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (often abbreviated to MLIT or MLITT) is a Ministry of the Japanese Government, tasked with the development of national policy relating to the area of land use, infrastructure development, transport and tourism. The MLITT is a major ministry of the Japanese State, second in size to the Ministry of Defence. The Ministry is divided into numerous bureaus, which include, but are not limited to: government buildings, international affairs, regional planning, city development, roads, railways, rivers, civil aviation, ports and harbours, maritime, and coast guard.
The Japan National Tourism Organisation (JNTO) is a government-run agency engaged in a broad range of activities that promote travel and tourism to and within Japan. JNTO has international offices in East Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. JNTO's activities include:
- Operating Tourist Information Centres in Japan for foreign visitors;
- Arranging reception facilities for foreign visitors;
- Promoting international conventions and trade fairs;
- Operating offices in key cities around the world;
- Conducting tourism-related research;
- Publishing travel books and films about Japan.
The New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority is the government agency responsible for establishing and regulating civil aviation safety and security standards. The CAA is responsible for carrying out aviation accident and incident investigations, using findings to establish industry-wide guidelines.
The Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority is the regulatory body for aviation in Nigeria. The NCAA has its main office on the grounds of Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja, and is responsible for all aspects of aviation in Nigeria, including safety, training, licensing, registration and airport operations.
The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an international economic organisation comprising 33 countries, largely the more-developed nations of Europe, North America and Australasia. The OECD is a collection of countries that are committed to democracy and the market economy, and provides a forum for member states to compare economic policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good economic practice and coordinate domestic and international policies. The OECD broadly aims to:
Support sustainable economic growth;
Raise living standards;
Maintain financial stability;
Assist other countries' economic development;
Contribute to growth in world trade.
The OECD was established in 1961 and is headquartered in Paris, France. It has a budget of EUR328 million and is one of the world's largest publishers in the fields of economics and public policy.